Biologia y perspectiva de microorganismos endófitos asociados a plantas
Biology and perspective of endophyte microorganisms associated with plants

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Autores

ALEXANDER PEREZ C

JOHANNA ROJAS

HELSON VALE, M

Resumen

Las bacterias endófitas residen en tejidos de las plantas, principalmente espacios intercelulares, raramente en espacios intracelulares y dentro de tejidos vasculares sin causar síntomas de enfermedad en la planta. Las discusiones sobre el origen de las bacterias endófitas y la forma de penetración, además de los mecanismos de colonización, consideran la hipótesis de que se originaron desde semillas, de la rizosfera, de microflora de filoplano o de material utilizado para la propagación vegetativa. La penetración en la planta puede ocurrir por estomas, heridas, áreas de emergencia de raíces laterales, siendo que estas bacterias pueden producir enzimas hidrolíticas capaces de degradar la pared celular de los vegetales. Estudios moleculares reciente sobre diversidad de bacterias endófitas han revelado una alta riqueza de filotipos, que promueven el crecimiento de las planta, suprimen fitopatógenos, ayudan a remover contaminantes, solubilizan fosfato y contribuyen a la asimilación biológica de nitrógeno. El objetivo de esta revisión es dar a conocer la evolución, ecología, diversidad, funcionalidad y técnicas fisiológicas y moleculares para el aislamiento de bacterias endófitas asociadas a tejidos de plantas.

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Referencias

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