La endogamia en la producción animal
Inbreeding in animal production

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Autores

RICARDO OCAMPO G.

HENRY CARDONA C.

Resumen

Se realizó una revisión literaria acerca de las ventajas y desventajas de utilizar la endogamia (cruce de individuos emparentados) directa o indirectamente en los sistemas de producción animal. La endogamia actúa en las poblaciones de animales silvestres y domesticadas reduciendo la variabilidad genética dentro de las poblaciones, disminuyendo la heterocigocidad, y aumentando la probabilidad de heredar a las siguientes generaciones alelos asociados a defectos genéticos, lo que se traduce finalmente en una reducción en la capacidad de adaptación de los animales al medio ambiente y un aumento en el riesgo de extinción. También se ha demostrado que el aumento de la endogamia a menudo se asocia con una reducción en el valor promedio de una o más características de interés económico en la producción animal. Es por esto que en los programas de mejoramiento genético y conservación es de vital importancia tener control sobre la endogamia para mantener la variabilidad genética dentro de las poblaciones animales a través del tiempo.

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