Genómica en la producción animal
Genomic in animal production

Contenido principal del artículo

Autores

PAULA ANDREA ÁNGEL-MARÍN

HENRY CARDONA-CADAVID

MARIO FERNANDO CERÓN-MUÑOZ

Resumen

El mejoramiento genético evalúa y utiliza la variación genética para mantener y mejorar cualitativa y cuantitativamente la producción animal. La identificación de animales con altos méritos genéticos se dificulta por el hecho que la mayoría de las características de importancia económica, por ser de naturaleza cuantitativa, son controladas por varios genes los cuales interactúan con el medio ambiente. El objetivo de este documento fue realizar una revisión sobre la aplicación de la genómica en la producción animal para diferentes características tanto las asociadas a la producción de leche como carne y la disponibilidad actual de herramientas de genética molecular y genómica que permiten predecir con mayor precisión los valores genéticos de los animales desde su nacimiento, disminuyendo el intervalo entre generaciones y aumentando la intensidad de selección.

Palabras clave:

Detalles del artículo

Referencias

AFFIMETRIX, 2011. Development of a high-throughput, high-density bovine genotyping array. Affimetrix, Inc. http://media.affymetrix.com/support/technical/whitepapers/axiom_gw_bos1_arrayplate _whitepaper.pdf

AGUILAR, I.; MISZTAL, I.; JOHNSON, D.L.; LEGARRA, A.; TSURUTA, S.; LAWLOR, T.J. 2010. Hot topic: A unified approach to utilize phenotypic, full pedigree, and genomic information for genetic evaluation of Holstein final score. Journal of Dairy Science 93 (2):743-752.

ALIPANAH, M.; KALASHNIKOVA, L.; RODIONOV, G. 2007. Association of prolactin gene variants with milk production traits in Russian Red Pied cattle. Iranian Journal Of Biotechnology 5 (3):158-161.

ANDREAS, E.; SUMANTRI, C.; NURAINI, H.; FARAHJALLAH, A.; ANGGRAENI, A. 2010. Identification of GH/AluI and GHR/AluI genes polymorphisms in Indonesian buffalo. Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture 35 (4):215-221.

ARRANZ, J.J.; COPPIETERS, W.; BERZI, P.; CAMBISANO, N.; GRISART, B.; KARIM, L.; MARCQ, F.; MOREAU, L.; MEZER, C.; RIQUET, J.; SIMON, P.; VANMANSHOVEN, P.; WAGENAAR, D.; GEORGES, M. 1998. A QTL affecting milk yield and composition maps to bovine chromosome 20: A confirmation. Animal. Genetics 29:107–115.

BARRERAS-SERRANO, A.; HERRERA-HARO, J.G.; HORI-OSHIMA, S.; GUTIÉRREZ-ESPINOSA, A.; ORTEGA-CERRILLA, M.E.; PÉREZ-PÉREZ, J.; LEMUS-FLORES, C.; KINEJARA-ESPINOSA, A.L.; GONZÁLEZ-ARANGUREN, A.; SOTO- AVILA, J.G. 2009. Prolactin receptor (PRLR) gen polymorphism and associations with reproductive traits in Pigs. J Anim Vet Adv 8 (3):469–475.

BOICHARD, D.; GUILLAUME, F.; BAUR, A.; CROISEAU, P.; ROSSIGNOL, M.N.; BOSCHER, M.Y.; DRUET, T.; GENESTOUT, L.; EGGEN, A.; JOURNAUX, L.; DUCROCQ, V.; FRITZ, S. 2002. Implementation of marker assisted selection in French dairy cattle. communication 22-03. 2002. In: Proc. of the. 7WCGALP. Montpellier.
BOUWMAN, A.C.; BOVENHUIS, H.; VISKER, M.; VAN ARENDONK, J.A.M. 2011. Genome-wide association of milk fatty acids in Dutch dairy cattle. BMC Genetics 12:43.

BRYM, P.; KAMINSKI, S.; WOJCIK, E. 2005. Polymorphism within the bovine prolactin receptor gene (PRLR). Anim Sci Pap Rep 23:61–66.

CANTET, R.J.C.; GUALDRÓN-DUARTE, J.L.; MUNILLA-LEGUIZAMÓN, S. 2008. Selección Genómica. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 28(2): 133-136.

CERÓN-MUÑOZ, M.F.; MONTOYA-ATEHORTUA, A.E.; TRUJILLO-BRAVO, E.R.; RAMÍREZ-TORO, E.J.; MONSALVE-FONNEGRA, Z.I. 2009. Marcadores del GEN Leptina en bovinos cruzados con Angus, Cebú, Romosinuano y Blanco Orejinegro. Revista. Cientifica (Maracaibo) 19 (4):110-123.
CHAGAS, L.M.; BASS, J.J.; BLANCHE, D.; BURKE, C.R.; KAY, JK.; LINDSAY, D.R.; LUCY, M.C.; MARTIN, G.B.; MEIER, S.; RHODES, F.M.; ROCHE, J.R.; THATCHER, W.W.; WEBB, R. 2007. Invited review: New perspectives on the roles of nutrition and metabolic priorities in the subfertility of high-producing dairy cows. Journal Dairy Science 90:4022–4032.

CHUNG, E.R.; RHIM, T.J.; HAN, S.K. 1996. Association PCR-RFLP markers of growth hormone and Prolactin genes and production traits in dairy cattle. Korean Journal Animal Science 38:321-336.

COLE, J.B.; VAN RADEN, P.M.; O’CONNELL, J.R.; VAN TASSELL, C.P.; SONSTEGARD, T.S.; SCHNABEL, R.D.; TAYLOR, J.F.; WIGGANS, G.R. 2009. Distribution and location of genetic effects for dairy traits. J. Dairy Sci. 92 (6):2931– 2946.

COPPIETERS, W.; RIQUET, J.; ARRANZ, J.J.; BERZI, P.; CAMBISANO, N.; GRISART, B.; KARIM, L.; MARCQ, F.; MOREAU, L.; NEZE, C.; SIMON, P.; VANMANSHOVEN, P.; WAGENAAR, D.; GEORGES, M. 1998. A QTL with major effect on milk yield and composition maps to bovine Chromosome 14. Mammalian Genome 9: 540-544. DE ROOS, A.P.W.; SCHROOTEN, C.; MULLAART, E.; VAN DER BEEK, S:, DE JONG. G.; VOSKAMP, W. 2009. Genomic selection at CRV. Interbull Bull. 39:47– 50.

DUCROCQ, V.; FRITZ, S.; GUILLAUME, F.; BOICHARD, D. 2009. French report on the use of genomic evaluation. Interbull Bulletin 39:17-21.

DYBUS, A. 2002. Associations of growth (GH) and Prolactin (PRL) genes polymorphisms with milk production traits in Polish Black and White cattle. Animal Science Papers and Reports 20(4):203-212.

ECHEVERRY, J.; LÓPEZ-HERRERA, A.; RINCÓN, J. 2011. Inclusión de los Marcadores Moleculares para algunos genes de Importancia Económica en la Evaluación Genética de Toros y Vacas Lecheras en Colombia. Actas Iberoamericanas de Conservación Animal1:430-433.

ELSIK, C.G.; TELLAM, R.L.; WORLEY, K.C. 2009. The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A window to ruminant biology and evolution. Science 24; 324(5926): 522–528.

ETHERTON, T.D. 2004. Somatotropic function: The somatomedin hypothesis revisited. Journal Animal Science 82(E. Suppl.):E239–E244.

FREEMAN, M.E.; KANYICSKA, B.; LERANT, A.; RGYNAGY, G. 2000. Prolactin: Struct Function, and Regulation of Secretion. Physicological Reviews 80 (4):1523- 1631.

FRIES, R:, DURSTEWITZ, G. 2001. Digital DNA signatures for animal tagging. En: Nature Biotechnology 19:1-508.

FUJITA, R. 2007. Genómica y su Aplicación en Producción Animal. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal15 (1):67-68.

GARRICK, D. 2011. The Nature, scope and impact of genomic prediction in beef cattle in the United States. Genetics Selection Evolution 43(17). Disponible en: http://www.gsejournal.org/content/43/1/17

GEORGES, M.; NIELSEN, D.; MACKINNON, M.; MISHRA, A.; OKIMOTO, R.; PASQUINO, A.T.; SARGEANT, L.S.; SORENSEN, A.; STEELE, M.R.; ZHAO, X.; WOMACK. J.E.; HOESCHELE, I. 1995. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing. Genetics 139 (2):907– 920.

GRISART, B.; COPPIETERS, W.; FARNIR, F.; KARIM, L.; FORD, C.; BERZI, P.; CAMBISANO, N.; MNI, M.; REID, S.; SIMON, P.; SPELMAN, R.; GEORGES, M.; SNELL, R. 2002. Positional Candidate Cloning of a QTL in Dairy Cattle: Identification of a Missense Mutation in the Bovine DGAT1 Gene with Major Effect on Milk Yield and Composition. Genome Research 12: 222-231.

GRISART, B.; FARNIR, F.; KARIM, L.; CAMBISANO, N.; KIM, J.J.; KVASZ, A.; MNI, M.; SIMON, P.; FRERE, J.M.; COPPIETERS, W.; GEORGES, M. 2004. Genetic and functional confirmation of the causality of the DGAT1 K232A quantitative trait nucleotide in affecting milk yield and composition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:2398–2403.

GUITOU, H.; MONTI, A.M.; SUTZ, G.; BALUK, M.I.; ELLINGER, A.M.; BUSTILLO, A.; FERNÁNDEZ, A.M.; MANTILLA, S.; SAEZ, G.; PÉREZ-LLORET, J.; HERRMANN, P.; SCHIJMAN, A. 2008. Terneza, Selección Asistida Por Marcadores Moleculares (SAM). Angus, Bs. As. 242:33-40.

HARRIS, B.L.; MONTGOMERIE, W.A. 2009. Current status of the use of genomic information in the national genetic evaluation of New Zealand. Interbull Bulletin 39:35-37.

HAYES, B.J.; BOWMAN, P.J.; CHAMBERLAIN, A.C.; GODDARD, M.E. 2009. Genomic selection in dairy cattle: progress and challenges. J Dairy Sci 92 (2): 433– 443.

HAYES, B.J.; PRYCE, J.; CHAMBERLAIN, A.J.; BOWMAN, P.J.; GODDARD, M.E. 2010. Genetic architecture of complex traits and accuracy of genomic prediction: Coat colour, milk-fat percentage, and type in Holstein cattle as contrasting model traits. PLoS Genet. 6:31001139. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen1001139.

HEATON, M.; HARHAY, G.P.; BENNETT, G.L.; STONE, R.T.; GROSSE, W.M.; CASAS, E.; KEELE, J.W.; SMITH, T.P.L.; CHITKO-MCKOWN, C.G.; LAEGEID, W.W. 2002. Selection and use of SNP markers for animal identification and paternity analysis in U.S. beef cattle. Mammalian Genome 13:272-281.

HRADECKA, E.; ?ITEK, J.; PANICKE, L.; ?EHOUT, V.; HANUSOVA, L. 2008. The relation of GH1, GHR and DGAT1 polymorphisms with estimated breeding values for milk production traits of German Holstein sires. Czech Journal Animal Science 53 (6):238–245.

ILLUMINA. 2011a. GoldenGate Bovine3K Genotyping BeadChip. Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA. http://www.illumina.com/documents//products/datasheets/datasheet_bovine3k.pdf.
ILLUMINA. 2011b. BovineSNP50 Genotyping BeadChip. Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA. http://www.illumina.com/documents/products/datasheets/datasheet_bovine_snp5O .pdf.

ILLUMINA. 2011c. BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip. Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA. http://www.illumina.com/documents//products/datasheets/datasheet_bovineHD.pdf.

KELLY, P.A.; BACHELOT, A.; KEDZIA, C.; HENNIGHAUSEN, L.; ORMANDY, C.J. 2002. The role of prolactin and growth hormone in mammary gland development. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 197:127-131.

KMIEC, M.; TERMAN, A. 2006. Associations between the prolactin receptor gene polymorphism and reproductive traits of boars. Journal Applied Genetics 47:139– 141.

KONONOFF, P.J.; DEOBALD, H.M.; STEWART, E.L.; LAYCOCK, A.D.; MARQUESS, F.L.S. 2005. The effect of a leptin single nucleotide polymorphism on quality grade, yield grade, and carcass weight of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 83: 927- 932.

LEGARRA, A.; MISZTAL, I. 2008. Technical note: Computing strategies in genome-wide selection. Journal Dairy Science 91:360–366.

LEWIN, H.A.; SCHMITT, K.; HUBERT, R.; VAN EIJK, M.J.; ARNHEIM, N. 1992. Close linkage between bovine Prolactin and BoLADRB3 genes: genetic mapping in cattle by single sperm typing. Genomics 13:44-48.

LI, J.T.; WANG, A.H.; CHEN, P.; LI, H.B.; ZHANG, C.S.; DU, L.X. 2006. Relationship between the Polymorphisms of 5’ Regulation Region of Prolactin Gene and Milk Traits in Chinese Holstein Dairy Cows. Asian-Aust. Journal Animal Science 19 (4):459-462.
LIC. 2008. Inside LIC. C. Bayly, ed. Livestock Improvement Corporation Hamilton, New Zealand.

LIEFERS, S.C.; TE PAS, M.F.W.; VEERKAMP, R.F.; VAN DER LENDE, T. 2002. Associations between Leptin Gene Polymorphisms and Production, Live Weight, Energy Balance, Feed Intake, and Fertility in Holstein Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (6): 1633-1638.

LINDBLAD-TOH, K.; WINCHESTER, E.; DALY, M.J.; WANG, D.G.; HIRSCHHORN, J.N.; LAVIOLETTE, J.P.; ARDLIE, K.; REICH, D.E.; ROBINSON, E.; SKLAR, P.; SHAH, N.; THOMAS, D.; FAN, J.B.; GINGERAS, T.; WARRINGTON, J.; PATIL, N.; HUDSON, T.J.; LANDER, E.S. 2000. Large-scale discovery and genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the mouse. Nature Genetics 24:381–6.

LOBERG, A.; DÜRR, J.W. 2009. Interbull survey on the use of genomic information. Interbull Bulletin 393–13.

LÜ, A.; HU, X.; CHEN, H.; JIANG, J.; ZHANG, C.; XU, H.; GAO, X. 2010. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in bovine PRL gene and their associations with milk production traits in Chinese Holsteins. Molecular Biology Reports 37 (1):547-551.

MARTÍNEZ-NIÑO, C.A.; MANRIQUE-PERDOMO, C.; ELZO, M. 2012. Cattle genetic evaluation: a historical perception. Rev Colomb Cienc Pecu 25:293-311.

MATUKUMALLI, L.K.; LAWLEY, C.T.; SCHNABEL, R.D.; TAYLOR, J.F.; ALLAN, M.F.; HEATON, M.P.; O´CONNELL, J.; MOORE, S.S.; SMITH, T.P.L.; SONSTEGARD, T.S.; VAN TASSELL, C.P. 2009. Development and Characterization of a High Density SNP Genotyping Assay for Cattle. PLOS one 4(4): e5350. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005350.

MEHMANNAVAZ, Y.; MIRINIA, C.A.; BONYADI, M.; VAEZ-TORSHIZI, R.; GORBANI, A. 2010. Effect Of Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphism On Breeding Values Of Milk. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 81 (10):65-78.

MEUWISSEN, T.H.E.; HAYES, B.J.; GODDARD, M.E. 2001. Prediction of total genetic value using genome-wide dense marker maps. Genetics 157:1819–1829.

MICEIKIEN?, I.; PE?IULAITIEN?, N.; BALTR?NAIT?, L.; SKINKYT?, R.; INDRIULYT?, R. 2006. Association of cattle genetic markers with performance traits. Biologija1:24–29.

MISZTAL, I.; LEGARRA, A.; AGUILAR, I. 2009. Computing procedures for genetic evaluation including phenotypic, full pedigree, and genomic information. Journal Dairy Science 92 (9):4648-4665.

MONTOYA, A.; CERÓN-MUÑOZ, A.E.; TRUJILLO-BRAVO, E.; RAMÍREZ, E.J.; ÁNGEL-MARÍN, P.A. 2009. Frecuencia de los marcadores del gen leptina en razas bovinas criollas y colombianas: i. Romosinuano, Chino santandereano, Sanmartinero y Velásquez. Revista Científica XIX (1): 38-48.

NIEUWHOF, G.J.; BEARD, K.T.; KONSTANTINOV, K.V.; BOWMAN, P.J.; HAYES, B.J. 2010. Implementation of genomics in Australia. Interbull Bulletin 42:35-39

NILSEN, H.; OLSEN, H.G.; HAYES, B.; SEHESTED, E.; SVENDSEN, M.; NOME, T.; MEUWISSEN, T.; LIEN, S. 2009. Casein haplotypes and their association with milk production traits in Norwegian Red cattle. Genet Sel Evol 41, 24. Disponible en: http://www.gsejournal.org/content/41/1/24.


ORRÚ, L.; TERZANO, G.M.; NAPOLITANO, F.; SAVARESE, M.C.; DE MATTEIS, G.; SCATÀ, M.C.; CATILLO, G.; MOIOLI, B. 2007. DNA Polymorphisms in River Buffalo Leptin Gene. Ital.J.Anim.Sci. 6 (2):342-344.

ORTEGA, T.J.; GARCÍA. P.L. 2011. El genoma bovino, métodos y resultados de su análisis. Revista MVZ Córdoba 16 (1):2410-2424.

PINDER, S.J.; PERRY, B.N.; SKIDMORE, C.J.; SAVVA, D. 1991. Analysis of polymorphism in the bovine casein genes by use of polymerase chain reaction. Anim. Genet. 22:11-20.

PRYCE, J.E.; ARIAS, J.; BOWMAN, P.J.; DAVIS, S.R.; MACDONALD, K.A.; WAGHORN, G.C.; WALES, W.J.; WILLIAMS, Y.J.; SPELMAN, R.J.; HAYES, B.J. 2012. Accuracy of genomic predictions of residual feed intake and 250-day body weight in growing heifers using 625,000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. J. Dairy Sci. 95 (4):2108–2119.

RACHAGANI, S.; GUPTA, I.D. 2008. Bovine kappa-casein gene polymorphism and its association with milk production traits. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 31 (4):893-897.

RAHBAR, R.; RAHIMI, G.; ANSARI, P.Z.; GHOLIZADEH, M. 2010. Identification of polymorphism in promoter region of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene and its association with milk related traits in Holstein cows. African Journal of Biotechnology 9 (33):5460-5464. 2010.

REINHARDT, F.; LIU, Z.; SEEFRIED, F.; THALLER, G. 2009. Implementation of genomic evaluation in German Holsteins. Interbull Bulletin 40:219–226.
REQUENA, F.D; AGÜERA, E.I.; REQUENA, F. 2007. Genética de la caseína de la leche en el bovino Frisón (Milk of casein of genetic in the Frison bovine). REDVET. Revista electrónica de Veterinaria VIII (1):1695-7504.

ROHRER, G.A.; FREKING, B.A.; NONNEMAN, D. 2007. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for pig identification and parentage exclusion. Animal Genetics 38:253-8.

SALAZAR-MARROQUÍN, E.L.; GONZÁLEZ, P.M.; DEL BOSQUE, G.A.; REZÉNDEZ-PÉREZ, D.; BARRERA, S.H.; SIFUENTES, R.A.M. 2004. Evaluac ión de marcadores mic rosatél i tes para la ve rificación deparentesco en ganado Beefmaster y Charolais en el noreste de México. Tecnica Pecuaria de Mexico 42: 429-435.

SCHAEFFER, L.R. 2006. Strategy for applying genome-wide selection in dairy cattle. Journal of animal Breeding and genetics 123 (4):218-223.

SCHENNINK, A.; STOOP, W.M.; VISKER, M.H.; HECK, J.M.; BOVENHUIS, H.; VAN DER POEL, J.J.; VAN VALENBERG, H.J.; VAN ARENDONK, J.A. 2007. DGAT1 underlies large genetic variation in milk-fat composition of dairy cows. Animal Genetics 38 (5):467–473.
SHI, D.S.; WANG, J.; YANG, Y.; LU, F.H.; LI, X.P.; LIU, Q.Y. 2012. DGAT1, GH, GHR, PRL and PRLR Polymorphism in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47 (2):328-334.

TERMAN, A. 2005. Effect of the polymorphism of prolactin receptor (PRLR) and leptin (LEP) genes on litter size in Polish pigs. J Anim Breed Genet 122 (6):400– 404.

TERMAN, A.; KMIE?, M.; POLASIK, D. 2006. Estrogen receptor gene (ESR) and semen characteristics of boars. Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 49 (1):71-76.

TERZANO, G.M.; BARTOCCI, S.; TERRAMOCCIA, S.; PARMEGGIANI, A. 2003. Leptin level in plasma of lactating buffaloes fed two diets with different energy and protein concentrations Ital.J.Anim.Sci. 2 (1):181-183.

THALLER, G.; KRÄMER, W.; WINTER, A.; KAUPE, B.; ERHARDT, G.; FRIES, R. 2003. Effects of DGAT1 variants on milk production traits in German cattle breeds. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1911-1918.

THOMAS, M.G.; ENNS, R.M.; HALLFORD, D.M.; KEISLER, D.H.; OSEIDAT, B.S.; MORRISON, C.D.; HERNÁNDEZ, J.A.; BRYANT, W.D.; FLORES, R.; LÓPEZ, R.; NARRO, L. 2002. Relationships of metabolic hormones and serum glucose to growth and reproductive development in performance tested Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls. Journal Animal Science 80:757–767.

TONHATI, H.; Programa de genética y mejoramiento en búfalos lecheros en Brasil MENDOZA-SÁNCHEZ, G.; SESANA, R.; DE ALBUQUERQUE, L.G. 2006.. Memorias, II Simposio de Búfalos de Europa-América.

TUPAC-YUPANQUI, I.; BARO, J.A.; DUNNER, S. 2004. Efecto Del Gen Dgat1 Sobre La Cantidad Y Composición De La Leche En La Raza Bovina Frisona Española. Arch. Zootec. 53:293-299. VAN DOORMAAL, B.J.; KISTEMAKER, G.J.; SULLIVAN, P.G.;
SARGOLZAEI, M.; SCHENKEL, F.S. 2009. Canadian implementation of genomic evaluations. Interbull Bulletin. 40:214–218.

VAN EENNENNAAM, A.L.; MEDRANO, J.F. 1991. Differences in allelic protein expression in the milk of heterozygous ?-casein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 74:1491-1496.

VAN RADEN, P.M. 2008. Efficient methods to compute genomic predictions. Journal Dairy Science 91 (11):4414-4423.

VAN RADEN, P.M.; VAN TASSELL, C.P.; WIGGANS, G.R.; SONSTEGARD, T.S.; SCHNABEL, R.D.; TAYLOR, J.F.; SCHENKEL, F.S. 2009. Invited Review: Reliability of Genomic Predictions for North American Holstein Bulls. J. Dairy Sci. 92 (1):16-24.

VAN RENS, B.T.; EVANS, G.J.; VAN DER LENDE, T. 2003. Components of litter size in gilts with different prolactin receptor genotypes. Theriogenology 59:915– 926.

VIITALA, S.; SZYDA, J.; BLOTT, S.; SCHULMAN, N.; LIDAUER, M.; MAKI-TANILA, A.; GEORGES, M.; VILKKI, J. 2006. The role of the bovine growth hormone receptor and prolactin receptor genes in milk, fat and protein production in Finnish Ayrshire dairy cattle. Genetics 173:2151–2164.

WIGGANS, G.R.; COOPER, T.A. 2010. Genomic evaluations: Past, Present, and Future. Dairy Cattle Reproduction Conference, St Paul, MN. pp 45-52.

WIGGANS, G.R.; SONSTEGARD, T.S.; VANRADEN, P.M.; MATUKUMALLI, L.K.; SCHNABEL, R.D.; TAYLOR, J.F.; CHESNAIS, J.P.; SCHENKEL, F.S.; VAN TASSELL, C.P. 2009. Genomic evaluations in the United States and Canada: A collaboration. ICAR Tech. Ser. No 13:347–353.

WIGGANS, G.R.; VAN RADEN, P.M.; COOPER, T.A. 2011. The genomic evaluation system in the United States: Past, present, future. J. Dairy Sci. 94 (6):3202–3211.

WILLIAMS, J.L.; DUNNER, S.; VALENTINI, A.; MAZZA, R.; AMARGER, V.; CHECA, M.L.; CRISA, A.; RAZZAQ, N.; DELOURME, D.; GRANDJEAN, F.; MARCHITELLI, C.; GARCIA, D.; GÓMEZ, R.P.; NEGRINI, R.; MARSAN, P.A.; LEVEZIEL, H. 2009.

Discovery, characterization and validation of single nucleotide polymorphisms within 206 bovine genes that may be considered as candidate genes for beef production and quality. Anim Genet 40:486-491.

WILSON, R. 2009. Las Hijas en Ordeñe contestan la Pregunta. Vice Presidente Asociado, Centro Comercial de Hatos Grandes, CRI.

WINTER, A.; KRAMER, W.; WERNER, F.A.; KOLLERS, S.; KATA, S.; DURSTEWITZ, G.; BUITKAMP, J.; WOMACK, J.E.; THALLER, G.; FRIES, R. 2002. Association of a lisine-232/alanine polymorphism in a bovine gene encoding acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) with variation at a quantitative trait locus for milk fat content. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:9300-9305.

ZHANG, J.L.; ZAN, L.S.; FANG, P.; ZHANG, F.; SHEN, G.; TIAN, W.Q. 2008. Genetic variation of PRLR gene and association with milk performance traits in dairy cattle. Can J Anim Sci 88:33–39.

ZHU, T.; GOH, E.L.K,; GRAICHEN, R.; LING, L.; LOBIE, P.E. 2001. Signal transduction via the growth hormone receptor. Cell. Signal 13:599–616.

ZIELKE, L.G.; BORTFELDT, R.H.; TETENS, J.; BROCKMANN, G.A. 2011. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in German Holstein cattle. Front. Gene. 2, Article 16.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.