Ácidos orgánicos, microbiota, salud intestinal y respuesta productiva en pollos de engorde

Organic acids, microbiota, gut health and productive response in broilers chickens Ácidos orgánicos en pollos de engorde

Contenido principal del artículo

José Olmedo Vera-Álava
Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Ecuador
José Gregorio Arteaga-Solórzano
Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Ecuador
Sixto Leonardo Reyna-Gallegos
Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Ecuador.

Resumen

Desde mediados del siglo pasado, el uso de antibióticos promotores de crecimiento en los piensos ha mejorado el rendimiento de varias especies animales productoras de alimentos. Sin embargo, la resistencia bacteriana a estos fármacos amenaza a la salud pública ha conducido a su prohibición en la alimentación animal. Esto ha incrementado los problemas entéricos en pollos de engorde y, en consecuencia, el uso de antibióticos con fines terapéuticos. En este contexto, se han propuesto varias alternativas a los antibióticos promotores de crecimiento, entre estas, los ácidos orgánicos que, de acuerdo con sus propiedades físicas y químicas, modifican la composición de la microbiota intestinal, cuyos metabolitos, como los ácidos grasos de cadena corta, favorecen la morfología, fisiología, integridad e inmunidad intestinal, aspectos que contribuyen a preservar la salud de este órgano y a incrementar la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes y, en última instancia, a mejorar la respuesta productiva de las aves. Esta revisión describe las principales características de los ácidos orgánicos comúnmente utilizados en la industria avícola, sus mecanismos de acción y sus efectos, individualmente, en combinaciones de ácidos orgánicos o con bioactivos, sobre la microbiota, sus metabolitos, y cómo esto afecta a la salud intestinal y al rendimiento productivo de pollos de engorde en diferentes condiciones sanitarias y ambientales, así como los factores que potencialmente interfieren con la actividad de los ácidos orgánicos.


Palabras clave: Alimentación Animal, Agentes Antibacterianos, Digestión, Disbiosis, Mucosa Intestinal, Salud Pública. (DeCS).

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Biografía del autor/a (VER)

José Olmedo Vera-Álava, Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Ecuador

Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Facultad de Posgrado, Maestría en Medicina Veterinaria, Mención en Salud y reproducción en especies productivas. Portoviejo, Manabí, Ecuador.

José Gregorio Arteaga-Solórzano, Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Ecuador

Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Departamento de Veterinaria, Grupo de investigación en Nutrición Animal, Santa Ana, Manabí, Ecuador

Sixto Leonardo Reyna-Gallegos, Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Ecuador.

Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Departamento de Veterinaria, Grupo de investigación en Nutrición Animal, Portoviejo, Ecuador.

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